Monday, May 25, 2020
From witches to apparitions, supernatural elements are the constituents of the play, Macbeth. The supernatural occurrences served as role as a manifestation of evil temptations that seduced Macbeth into murdering, even his own comrades. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s first meet with the supernatural was the ignition of his ambition to kill for his own success; the second encounter of the supernatural allowed his sanity and judgment to wander off to a murdererÃ¢â¬â¢s mind with the basis of his before gained ambition. SupernaturalÃ¢â¬â¢s third fated meeting with Macbeth had left him the unbearable token of guilt and insecurity in which compelled him to act in a petrified way during his banquet. The last meeting ultimately left Macbeth with the evading thought of killingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Thus, his first supernatural occurrence was the start of Macbeth is overgrowing ambition to do the things to come. In time, the ambition in Macbeth to succeed by any means possible started to amplify. A sliver of light still shined over the darkness of evil temptation, however that sliver became overshadowed as Macbeth met his second supernatural occurrence. Ã¢â¬Å"Thou marshallÃ¢â¬â¢st me the way that I was goingÃ¢â¬ (2.1. 43). This implies that the supernatural dagger Macbeth was seeing was leading him the way to DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s chamber to murder him. Ã¢â¬Å"It is the bloody business which informs/ Thus to mine eyesÃ¢â¬ (2.1. 49-50). From this piece of the soliloquy, it implied that the dagger itself encouraged its user, Macbeth, to continue on to kill Duncan. The dagger soliloquy, on some basis, was like the three witches; it gave an idea to Macbeth of what is to come of next and by doing so, Macbeth proceeded with the assassination of King Duncan from this visionary encouragement. Subsequently, Macbeth succeeded to the throne of King of Scotland, and he held a feast to celebrate. As mentioned previously, Banquo murdered by assassins whom Macbeth hired to secure his throne and allow his family line to be Kings. During the festivity, BanquoÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost appeared in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s chair at the banquet table giving grief and daunted. Ã¢â¬Å"You make me strange /Even to theShow MoreRelatedThe Supernatural in Macbeth874 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Supernatural in Macbeth The supernatural contributes significantly to the story in the thrilling play Macbeth, written by Shakespeare. The paranormal signs and powers show considerable overlap with insanity in the case of several characters throughout the play. The superhuman agents that appear or contacted in the play are used for evil purposes in almost all the cases, and are predominantly resulting in the death of a human being. First of all, the three witches are using supernatural powersRead MoreThe Supernatural In Macbeth1858 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages In the play Macbeth by WIlliam Shakespeare, the supernatural is an ever present force, seen in the witches, the ghost of banquo, and maybe some other places. The way Shakespeare portrays the supernatural, and especially the witches, add a great deal s to the play, and also contribute in key ways to the themes, structure, tone. Mood, and literary devices in ways that are designed to affect the audience of the play. The most important contribution in my opinion, was that they made the play scaryRead MoreTheme Of Supernatural In Macbeth773 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShakespeares Macbeth, the supernatural and the role it plays in motivating characters is present throughout the duration of the play. The supernatural causes conflict in the play and the prophecies from the witches in act one is the inciting action. The apparition, Banquos ghost, and the dagger are examples of how the presence of the supernatural causes conflict. The theme of the supernatural causing conflict in Macbeth plays an important role in the plot of the play. The witches in Macbeth play a criticalRead MoreThe Supernatural World Of Macbeth1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe supernatural world. The idea that the world was full of witches, ghosts, and spells began to stain the country. The hysteria and paranoia regarding witches and spells caused uncontrollable excitement for the people in the 15th century. Following superstitions and indulging in mystical magic was habitual; darkness was taking over. Slowly, but surely the malicious, foul, and unholy world was raiding the souls and minds of the people in the 15th century. The supernatural world in Macbeth wasRead MoreSummary Of The Supernatural In Macbeth1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessuspense and involvement of the supernatural. The use of the witches, the visions, the ghost and the apparition is key to making the idea of the plot work and it adds the elements of thrill and suspense to the audience. Reading through each act and scene of the play, it is noticed that the supernatural is in reality a primary concept of the playÃ¢â¬â¢s plot. The use of the supernatural emerges at the start of the play, with three witches predicting the destiny of Macbeth. The audience now has an idea asRead MoreMacbeth - Supernatural Theme809 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe presence of supernatural forces in William Shakespeare s, Macbeth, provides for much of the play s dramatic tension and the mounting suspense. Several supernatural apparitions throughout the play profoundly affect Macbeth and the evil forces eventually claim Macbeth and destroy his morals. Macbeth s ambition was driven by the prophecies of the three witches and unlike Banquo, he was willing to do anything to assure that they actually transpire. Macbeth is horrified at the notion of killingRead More The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay3374 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesThe Supernatural in Macbeth Ã Ã More than a few elements of the supernatural can be discovered within the action and dialogue of Shakespeares plays.Ã However, the extent and nature of those elements differs to a large degree.Ã There are traces of it to be found in Henry V, Pardon, gentles all,/The flat unraised spirit that hath dard...to bring forth/So great and object (LucyÃ 1).Ã Ã There are also elements of it apparent in Winters Tale, What I did not well I meant well (LucyÃ Read MoreThe Supernatural In Macbeth Essay1944 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Supernatural and itsÃ¢â¬â¢ affect in the play Macbeth The supernatural has always fascinated and continues to intrigue mankind. In many of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays, he uses the supernatural to strengthen a particular scene or to influence the impression the audience has about someone or something. This was not strange or uncommon in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time. In fact, during the 1500s, many people still believed in witches and witchcraft. Even in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, with such advanced science and technology, manyRead MoreMacbeth : Influence Of The Supernatural2958 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesMacbeth Essay- Influence of the Supernatural Ã¢â¬Å"The supernatural is the natural not yet understood.Ã¢â¬ (Elbert Hubbard) Within the realm of Williams ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"MacbethÃ¢â¬ , supernatural elements play a prevalent role throughout the telling of the tragedy. Created in a time period in which fear of the unknown ran high and belief in the supernatural was rampant, the incorporation of mystical components resulted in a compelling story for the people of the Elizabethan era. Moving forward into the modernRead MoreOccult and Supernatural Elements in Macbeth1402 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlthough Macbeth is not classed as being a supernatural play or a play of the occult, there are some elements in the play that Shakespeare uses to effect. It is necessary however, to define what is meant by the terms Ã¢â¬ËoccultÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËsupernaturalÃ¢â¬â¢: the term Ã¢â¬ËoccultÃ¢â¬â¢ is defined as being Ã¢â¬Ësupernatural beliefs, practises or phenomenonÃ¢â¬â¢ and the term Ã¢â¬ËsupernaturalÃ¢â¬â¢ is de fined as being Ã¢â¬Ëattributed to some force beyond scientific understanding or the laws of natureÃ¢â¬â¢; both these terms can be associated with
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Lori Mc Allen English 120 Professor Iwamoto 23 September 2015 Schizophrenia and its Treatment Welfare and Institutions code section 5008 (h)(1) (A) defines the term Ã¢â¬Å"gravely disabledÃ¢â¬ as a condition in which a person, as a result of a mental disorder, is unable to provide for his or her basic personal needs for food, clothing, or shelter. One of the most difficult of these mental illnesses to treat is Schizophrenia. There are many reasons for this medical dilemma, not the least of these, the disease process itself. Even in the most severe episode the schizophrenic patient doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t truly understand their need for treatment or their illness because 97% of schizophrenia patients suffer from extreme lack of insight. This symptom, in and ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Reasoning and problem solving as well as planning and carrying out even the simplest of tasks are also skills that are lacking. Positive symptoms include what most would call psychotic symptoms. These symptoms are greatly misunderstood by the general public and this ignorance, I believe, is the cause of most of the stigma associated with all mental illness. Some examples of these are: Hallucinations where a person sees and hears what no one else can see or hear. The most common type of hallucination in schizophrenia is voices. Delusions are a belief that is maintained despite being contradicted by what is generally accepted as rational argument or reality. Religiosity is a common form of a delusional psychosis where a patient might believe they are in some way part of or being directed by God and is often quite involved. The patient may believe that God is sending them messages through the TV and or radio which cause erratic bizarre behavior that is incongruent to normal everyday functioning. Once in this stage of psychosis the patient is so committed to their new reality it is impossible to use logic to reframe their beliefs and bring them back to reality. Dysfunctional ways of thinking are yet another positive symptom and are called thought disorders. One form of thought disorder is called disorganized thinking. In this state thoughts may come and go
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Why did a pick a movie that has some many questionable connections to the things weÃ¢â¬â¢ve Ã¢â¬Å"discussedÃ¢â¬ in class? I guess I picked the movie because IÃ¢â¬â¢ve watched it over 100 times, and pretty know it like the back of my hand, as well as it was one of the first adult-like novels I read when I was a very young girl that my grandmother didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a problem with. I remember after reading the first couple of chapters, my grandmother asked what did I think of it. I teared up and said I felt sad and could relate to the feelings of abandonment and conflict Celie was going through. We had such a great discussion about the book and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when my grandmother decided that I was mature enough to watch the movie. I cried like a baby and had so many questions for my grandmother after. So, when presented with doing a final paper on a film, what better film to choose than one I have analyzed in so many ways except maybe from a leadership perspective. The challenge will be completing at least five pages when I donÃ¢â¬â¢t even know where to start. The leadership practice inventory PDF wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t that helpful, and since there was no outline, template, or clear directive on how to shape the paper. I feel like this could very well end up being a rant of some sort. I guess from a leadership perspective itÃ¢â¬â¢s my job to create my own path on how to complete this exasperating assignment. I would like to apologize to my fellow students in advance of reading this paper. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not a fan of forced writingShow MoreRelated Life Is Mathematics: Looking at the movie Pi. Essay1333 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLife Is Mathematics: Looking at the movie Pi. Well that pretty much says it all. What is it? It is a very good movie. This is an Independent film. It is a number which can only be defined in the mind. The first time I watched this movie was when I was at my best friendÃ¢â¬â¢s house last year around 2am. We watched it on VHS, but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t finish it. I came back here and found someone who had it on their computer; we burned it to a CD in a DivX format. Ã¢â¬Å"DivX(TM) is a leading MPEG-4 compatibleRead MoreThe Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe704 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesnot much fun.Ã¢â¬ I have to disagree with this statement because I thought that movie was fun-filled and intriguing. As the movie was unraveling itself, it kept me on a rollercoaster with entertaining and emotional scenes; it kept me on the edge of my sear. I felt that the Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe was an awesome work of profound ambition. To add, the actors and actresses in the movie did an awesome job with portraying their characters through expressing emotion andRead MoreHeat By Michael Mann : The Heat921 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbut one that stuck with me for a while was watching my first rated R movie that was entitled HEAT by Michael Mann. The story takes us through a journey through A group of professional bank robbers start to feel the heat from police when they unknowingly leave a clue at their latest heist. (IMDB) In reading the script compared to the movie I can spot many differences. I loved the movie but the script was better than the movie. The first difference I spoted was is in the opening sequence of theRead MoreHe Conformity s Judgement Is Based On What Gender They Are Essay1576 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbe summarized in one movie Grease. Grease made 159 million dollars in the year 1978 alone, but the movie itself shows the double standards on gender with two main a groups of teenage high school students. The testosterone filled group of males known as T- Birds and the Barbie pink female group known as The Pink ladies, make up the popular crew in their school. If you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t part of these two groups than you are considered a lack of interest and a waste of existence. The movie also contains viewpointsRead MoreI Arrived At Ms. Cortes937 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageson him when he is home. The alarm to help her remember to tell Messiah to go to the bathroom. The first time it went off, Ms. Cortes told Messiah to go to the bathroom and he did. I instructed her to praise him for going to the bathroom. It shows him, how proud she is and encourages him to continue to go to the bathroom. We did this throughout my shift. I noticed that every time Ms. CortesÃ¢â¬â¢ alarm went off Jordan who is one would follow Messiah into the bathroom and try to potty. Ms. Cortes wanted himRead MoreEssay on Movie Review1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA few good men 1 Teresa Gamble ADJ-235 .Movie Review A few good men January 13, 2013 A few good men 2 I choose to watch the movie Ã¢â¬Å"A few good menÃ¢â¬ . The story line goes as where Tom Cruise is asked to defend two marines who are charged with murder of a fellow officer. During the investigation it was found that the marines were ordered what they call a Code Red. A code red is where disciplinary measure is told to the marine when a member offendsRead MoreThe Breakfast Club Essay721 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAfter analyzing the classic movie, The Breakfast Club it is safe to say that the characters in the movie got a little more out of detention than they were thinking. When the five characters, who are very much different from each other, all found out they were going to be forced to spend their Saturday together writing an 1000 word essay on Ã¢â¬Å"who [they] think they areÃ¢â¬ , you can imagine their initial reaction. Little did they know that spending the day all together would allow them to better understandRead MoreBec Case Study Essay1624 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStudy the data flows and data stores on these diagrams and decide if you agree with the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusion that there are only the six entity types listed in this case and in BEC Figure 6-1. If you disagree, define additional entity types, explain why they are necessary, and modify BEC Figure 6-1. The six entity types in BEC Figure 1 are the only ones needed to represent the MyBroadway system. However, depending on what data about Customers and Employees are required, entities for these objectsRead MoreI Went Go See Was Cineastes : Les Homes850 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe movie I went to go see was cinÃ ©astes: les homes. It was about a woman giving an interview to male French filmmakers. The woman asks the males the same question she had asked the females in the previous movie. She had asked them if cinema have a gender most of them answered that they really didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know if it did. But most of the men spoke more about the feminism of movies and how females make better actors then men, because they show more emotion then male actors. Most men also asked female directorRead MoreVictor Frankenstein, the famous scientist who born so differently and unique during his short life.600 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthe one who can become our graceful hero, to lead more people start to p ursue science, to encourage more coward getting remorseless. Just like what he did in science, he was the kind of person who believe himself can shock the world and he actually did proof to us by his incredible talent and inspiration. Yes, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the reason that why I pick him as my super hero in my heart. His curiosity and loyalty to seek knowledge, one of his university professor told him what he know in the past are useless
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
In recent years, there exist many new types of economy in globalisation, and then it results in varying new types of job in which different job descriptions depending on different industries. More importantly, the role of employees is day by day appreciated as a core component in the development and the success of any organisational productivity and any company respectively. That is the reason why psychological contract needs to be invented in a new economy whilst loss of trade unions. Subsequently, this essay will not only clarify how the psychological contract is defined and how it is evaluated and applied in organisations in reality but also answer the question why a psychological contract is considered as so important in the management of the contemporary employment relationship. By definition, psychological contract has been stated as Ã¢â¬Å"a set of unwritten reciprocal expectations between an individual employee and the organisationÃ¢â¬ (Schein, 1978:48) and Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ the perceptions of the two parties, employee and employer, of what their mutual obligations are towards each otherÃ¢â¬ (Guest and Conway, 2002:1). We will write a custom essay sample on Psychological contract or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Also, another perspective has been defined as Ã¢â¬Å"The psychological contract, unlike expectations, entails a belief in what the employer is obliged to provide, based on perceived promises of reciprocal exchangeÃ¢â¬ (Robinson and Rousseau, 1994, p.246). On the other hand, as for the nature of the employment relationship, Wilton (2011) referred this concept to Ã¢â¬Å"what is written or implied in contract of employment or the other explicit manifestations of the employment relationshipÃ¢â¬ or subjected to Ã¢â¬Å"constant changeÃ¢â¬ . Hence, psychological contract is considered as a meaningful concept and initial understanding need to be established at the beginning between employers and employees. Broadly, the psychological contract is shaped by both individual factors (include age, gender, level of education and prior employment experience) and organisational factors (such as sector and competitive strategies) (Guest and Conway, 2004). These cause to impact on individual perceptions of Ã¢â¬Å"sense of fairness, degree of trust and deliver on the implicit dealÃ¢â¬ (Guest and Conway, 1997) and even determine the state of psychological contract. As a consequence, positive (e.g. job satisfaction, motivation, loyalty, lowered intention to quit, employee engagement or commitment,Ã¢â¬ ¦) or negative (e.g. stress, intention to quit, disappointed,Ã¢â¬ ¦) behavioural and attitudinal outcomes are recognised, which mediated by not only organisational influences of human resource policy and practise, jobÃ alternatives, the behaviours and the actions of managers but also the individual perceptions of employees. Obviously, psychological contract is a reciprocal exchange has been established among employer and employee with implicit expectations, obligations and promises. Therefore, an individual employee could implicitly understand and believe that their hard-working and their contribution will be recognised and rewarded by employersÃ¢â¬â¢ perception although almost these things have not belonged to any employment contract before. After all, if not as expected, employees may feel that the psychological contract fails to breaches, and then resulting in dissatisfaction and loss of trust with their employers. In particular, employees having a positive psychological contract with their employers is when they have Ã¢â¬Å"positive employment relations, employee commitment, motivation, job satisfactionÃ¢â¬ (Preston, 2011) and they perceive other expectations have been done, so it is more likely to stay in the company. For example, employees have a Ã¢â¬Å"voiceÃ¢â¬ in decision-making or problem-solving, a stability of job or job security, or job satisfaction, those of employees expressed by interesting job assignments, days-off or holidays, flexible working hours, good working conditions, challenging job tasks, given chances to gather employees together as well as other benefits of pay and allowances . What is more, they could be built a career or offered to involve in free training courses for extra qualifications and so forth. Likewise, when the demands of employees have been provided, they are treated with all respects, their efforts are rewarded, so actually they perceive what their employers have delivered on the deals and they feel motivated, engaged and committed to their employers. As a result, certainly they will be inspired to work harder and harder to reciprocate their employerÃ¢â¬â¢s offers. In brief, Guest (2001) argued that Ã¢â¬Å"employees having a positive psychological contract is the existence of a larger number of fair and effective human resource management practises in the businessÃ¢â¬ . In contrast to a positive psychological contract, the problems come up with a negative psychological contract, leading to leave the business due to negative potential behaviours and attitudes. Accordingly, the implications of Ã¢â¬Å"the instability of the psychological contract and the considerable scope for misinterpretationÃ¢â¬ (Robinson and Rousseau, 1994) go along with multiple expectations from different parts of organisations will have Ã¢â¬Å"a cumulative impact on theÃ employment relationship which, ultimately, may result in either employee resignation or dismissalÃ¢â¬ (Wilton, 2011) as well. Importantly, all of that reach closely to a lowered effort, degraded enthusiasm and motivation, reduced goodwill, more stressful, partly caused by over working hours without any incremental wage, the working condition is worse or unsafe and so on; thus, it brings in lowered productivity and lowered outputs accompany with lowered loyalty to carry on working at all. In addition, the conflicts have been increasing gradually and the management becomes more difficult and harder for employers to get along with occurring disputes because of the fact that employees having a negative psychological contract may feel that they did not receive whatever from their employer throughout mutual adaption, reciprocal promises or even the most basic expectations, all of these seem not to be provided and they are stimulated to Ã¢â¬Å"fight for their rightÃ¢â¬ any way. In short, Zhao et al. (2007) led to the conclusions that violation mediates relations between breach and such attitudes as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions, and that these attitudes are related negatively to such behaviours as in-role performance, and organizational citizenship behaviour (Emerald). However, issues of psychological contract management are not easy to handle in progress. Wilton (2011) addressed one of key of conflicts of those concerned with ensuring consistent messages and a clear communication across the organisation for Ã¢â¬Å"all employees receive the message and absorb the sense of organisational purposeÃ¢â¬ (Mason, 1995, p.22) or how to solve Ã¢â¬Å"multiple agencyÃ¢â¬ -related disputes. Obviously, there are many organisations in which many different agents at a varying levels of management in a company; as a consequence, this will affect on the quality of delivery towards the missions, goals and strategies from the top management to the end-employees through line managers and other supervisor levels. Otherwise, for this reason, Wilton (2011) also suggested that it should set up an organisational culture in the entire company for the purposes of avoiding from misunderstanding or misinterpretation. Besides, managers also deal with the age-related issues regard to psychological contract. Specifically, in any organisation, it has no doubt regards to different levels of age work together with perception, thinking and the actions due to different experiences and generations. By which, based on the developmental theories,Ã Kupperschmidt (2000) and several authors in subsequent years (Beck, 2001; Smola and Sutton, 2002; Westerman and Yamamura, 2007) demonstrated that Ã¢â¬Å"it is these conditions that tend to distinguish one generation from the next, so that each generational group has a unique pattern of behaviour based on their shared experiencesÃ¢â¬ (Emerald). Furthermore, it is important to note that the expectations are not fully known and understood between parties. Nobody can understand the thinking or expectations of each other in full without explicitly expressing because of the fact that individuals come from the different classes and statuses in society and they are not under a same qualification, environment and level; especially, the psychological contract is an implicit contract, so fully mutual understanding is not easy for both parties. From this perspective, it comes up with another problem given an account of how to manage cross-cultural employment relationship; that is, either employers or employees are from different background profiles, it makes the management and the matters of interpreting or motivating or getting mutual expectations are quite tougher as a consequence. It is said that Ã¢â¬Å"A successful cross-cultural relationship benefits the individuals concerned by developing understanding and tolerance. If the cross-cultural relationship fails, the reserve happens: stereotypes are reinforced, attitudes narrow, misunderstandings proliferate, and instead of gaining from the cultural variety, the organisation is in danger of flying apart as members seek to protect their own interests.Ã¢â¬ (Mead, 1994). In fact, although the communication between different cultures is likely to be complicated, everything certainly has the solution after all. Apart from those perspectives, employment relationship is more o r less affected by globalisation and technical advances in recent days. This is why psychological contract is affected by competition among companies and a dynamically changing labour market because most of companies demand to maximise efficiency, effectiveness and responsiveness in operations and human resource management policies. Consequently, it heavily impacts on psychological contract between parties, especially job security is decreased by increases in part-time or temporary employees and employees are required highly in skills, knowledge and experience. Also, it emphasises on arising of Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ psychological contracts (Rousseau and Parks, 1993), namely relational contracts Ã¢â¬Å"characterised by company-specific skills, long-termÃ career development and extensive trainingÃ¢â¬ and transactional contracts Ã¢â¬Å"which focus on short-term financial relationships and involve low emotional commitment by employeesÃ¢â¬ (Emerald). On the other aspect, employees address higher expectations in psychological contracts to their employers including development opportunities in career, higher motivation, higher paid salary, more flexible working hours or more challenging works, etc. Nowadays, there would seem to be complicated and sophisticated in managing human resource that many companies appreciate and develop complex set of human resource management policies and practises owing to its essential role. As mentioned above, managers need to impose relevant and appropriate regulations and policies to motivate employees and maintain a positive psychological contract in the way they can work with their best; commonly, it is strongly associated with employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Some specialists demonstrated through three motivationÃ¢â¬â¢s theories that managers should reply on such types of people (McGregor), the content of motivation (Maslow) and the process of motivation (Vroom). Firstly, Douglas McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s (1960) introduced Theory X and Y, which are all about perception, in order to reveal what kind of people are and what managers need to do to keep them working. Secondly, Abraham MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s (1943) suggested psychological need-based motivation in which people will behave in ways that satisfy their different levels of need when they are motivated. Based on MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy, many companies set out human resource management policies to meet employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. For instance, psychological (good working conditions, attractive wage or salary, subsidised housing and free or subsidised catering), safety (private health insurance cover, attractive pension provisions, safe working conditions, Ã¢â¬Å"no redundancyÃ¢â¬ policy), social-relationships ( company sports and social clubs, office parties, barbeques, outings, permission for informal activities and encouraging open communications), esteem (regular positive feedback, prestige job titles, photographs in company news sheet, promotions), self-actualisation (challenging job assignments, discretion over core work activities, promotion opportunities and encouraging creativity) (Buchanan and Huczynski, 1991, p. 61). Undoubtedly, those characteristics bring employees in a positive outcome of psychological contract that employers should note, especially in a dynamic labour market and a competitive economy these days. Finally, Victor VroomÃ¢â¬â¢s (1964) stated that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ expectations that certain behaviours would lead to a particular outcome in terms of Ã¢â¬Å"subjective probabilityÃ¢â¬ . This theory suggests that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s effort Ã¢â¬Å"inputsÃ¢â¬ affected by given reward and a good manager are advised to have a clear understanding the relationship between effort, performance and reward so as to apply in practises because this matter also regards to trade-off of work-life balance. As can be seen clearly, employees wish to work overtime because of incremental wage to support for their family; they could work harder but lack of time to take care of their family. So far, understanding psychological contract is viewed as a vital part in management, employers could Ã¢â¬Å"eliminate false assumptions about job duties, extra-role behaviours, and relational expectationsÃ¢â¬ (Emerald) and then gain some usefulness like Ã¢â¬Å"increases in job performance, lower staff turnover and higher job satisfaction for both employee and supervisorÃ¢â¬ (Emerald). Apart from this view, most of companies have seen the major role of psychological contract management and have applied successfully in human resource management policies to maximise efficiency. Recently, temporary employees and flexible time are popular strategies used in many large companies due to its potential advantages in general and in psychological contract in particular. A research has been taken by IDS in 2012 also confirmed that Ã¢â¬Å"Flexible working continues to gain in popularity as employees place more value on their work-life balance. Many larger companies now offer a wide range of alternative working patterns and extend the right to request flexible working to all employees. They recognise that in doing so they can strengthen their employer brand, improve staff retention and increase employee engagement.Ã¢â¬ (www.ids.thomsonreuters.com). In some large companies, there is a connection of human resource management in the way which people are managed as Ã¢â¬Å"enhancing the skills, knowledge, learning and innovative capacity of people at every level, the organisation as well as the individual can prosperÃ¢â¬ (Harrison, 1997, p.7) with gaining competitive advantage, which is considered so important in recent global economy. So, it directly results in psychological contract as well with the actions and strategies related to how people perceive the relationship between performance, motivation and reward in the way of such actions like Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the communication of business directions, problems and plans; rewarding employees for customer service/quality; the identification of high-potentialÃ employees early; the reward of employees for innovation/creativity and the reward of employees for business/productivity gainsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Poole and Jenkins, 1996). In conclusion, as can be seen clearly, psychological contract plays a major role in employment relationship and it is also a strong association between employees and organisations. It is said that a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success is partly based on psychological contract-related mutual understanding of both parties. Nowadays, in a changing and dynamic environment, any company also wants to seek to maximise effectiveness and efficiency and then they know they need to make strategic decisions which are all about the progresses of recruitment, selection, what kind of contract suitable to sign for every type of employees or how job tasks are designed and assigned to employees, etc. Importantly, to manage people at work successfully, it requires effective, creative and responsive human resource policies so that all of these characteristics contribute to the development of company. Additionally, in my opinion, managers should deploy such policies like empowering much more for employees in order that employees feel engaged to more responsibility due to autonomy and they feel raised creditability. Besides, managers not only can give feedback to employees owing to care-taking expression through work-based recognition of themselves but also Ã¢â¬Å"upgradeÃ¢â¬ a level of trust by the way in which employees have a right to join in decision-making or problem-solving. Finally, I want to mention the role of governmental policies regards to pay and other basic benefits that employees must be received from their employers whether these things belong to psychological contract or any other contracts or not since people are core component in the success of a company in particular and in the prosperity of a country in general.
Friday, April 10, 2020
The Islamic Revolution The 1978 political turbulence that put an end to the millennium-old monarchy in Iran has become known as the "Iranian Revolution." Officially, it is called the "Islamic Revolution," a notion emphasized by the new sovereigns and their loyal supporters in order to justify the rule of the Shiia clergymen and their Islamic principles. (Bernard Lewis, 2004). Need essay sample on "The Islamic Revolution" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Our Customers Often Tell Us: Who wants to write paper for me? Professional writers recommend: Academic Papers For Sale Cheap Writing Services Write My Essay Online Cheap Custom Writing Service Is It Illegal To Write Papers For Money The "Revolution" replaced the existing political order with a theocracy, a development incongruent with trends prevalent elsewhere in contemporary history wherever there has been a revolution. The incongruency is apparent not merely because a revolution had taken place, but because it had occurred under the leadership of a traditionalist Moslem clergy, who were striving to materialize their long term objective: the establishment of a theocracy. In fact, it is surprising to note that until the early 1970s Iran was undergoing a transition toward a more secular society, with the role of religion diminishing in regard to political affairs. The outspoken revolutionary and reformist opposition forces were mainly secular in their orientation. Their domain of influence was expanding, making them a likely candidate to replace the existing regime. Then, in the 1970s, a renewed Shiia revitalization movement began. This movement gained momentum and penetrated almost every segment of the population. It conquered certain social territories that had been the stronghold of the former secular political groups. Simultaneously, it strengthened and expanded its influence among the lower classes and rural people. This movement even found access to those members of the middle class who were better educated than most other Iranians. It was a great success for the proponents of Islamic rule, for now they had easy access to the group with the most significant political potential in the country--the urban middle class. This stratum included most of Iran's politically hotheaded college students, younger white-collar employees, and young officers in the administration of Iran's growing industrial system. These groups included most of Iran's long-time opponents of the regime, who were thoroughly experienced in radical activities under repressive rule. They were people with the knowledge and skills of political persuasion. It was not, therefore, the size of this stratum that was significant, but its political potential. It became increasingly apparent that a redirection of the national struggle was in the process and that events were moving in favor of Islamic activists. Building upon this movement, different Moslem groups were encouraged to expand their activities, both in political and nonpolitical affairs. Some groups attempted to appeal to all classes with their political objectives and demands for a national uprising against the regime. As the struggle proceeded, during 1977-78, the Shiia groups under Ayatollah Khomeini's leadership managed to unify the major opposition forces over the objective of pushing the Shah out of office. This objective brought nearly all the opposition groups under a single leadership. As a result, the leading clergy who commanded the alliance of the insurgent masses rose to the position of leader of the opposition groups, speaking with a national voice. This promotion was not only political; simultaneously, it imposed the clergy's objectives and preferences upon the people. Such activities at the leadership level were complemented by the entrance into the movement of millions of people who had very little previous political experience. A power was created that could easily crush any resistance, could silence any other alternative suggestions, and was obedient to the clergymen who had established themselves as the leaders of the uprising. The contribution and power of the small, but highly influential, new middle class was becoming insignificant compared to that of the urban lower class and the rural people. These earlier activists found themselves powerless to exert any determining influence upon the new course of social change. The energies that now moved the masses were beyond the control or command of the new middle class. The slogans, for example, during the early wave of the uprising in the winter of 1978, were "Freedom and Independence." By the end of the year, they had become "Freedom, Independence, and the Islamic Republic." The former reflects the earlier phase when secularists were still in the lead, and the latter reflects the time when the clergy leaders and their supporters had become a dominant force. The original political demands, for which the secularists had fought for years and to which they had tried to educate the populace, were fading away in the uproar of escalating revolution. Those demands were overstepped by an Islamic fundamentalist revitalization movement that had attracted millions of newcomers to the realm of revolutionary politics. Ideologically, the secular group found themselves to be like a gust of wind lost in a hurricane. They had helped the genie out of the bottle only to find themselves caught in his vise-like grip. The movement was entering a new phase. (Nikki R. Keddie, 2003). In this phase, the demands of nearly all political forces that did not belong to the clergy-led groups were either removed from the agenda or pushed down on the list. Very little opportunity remained for secular demands, even if they were made by Moslem intellectuals. The revolution of the secular groups and the consequences of the earlier activists' efforts were swallowed up by the Shiia revitalization movement. The immense national power was now invested in a clerical leadership. Millions of devoted Shiia Iranians listened eagerly to these leaders as both political commanders and religious authorities. Millions of others obeyed them, at least as a political leadership. In this way, it was possible for the Shiia activists to elevate Ayatollah Khomeini to a leading position as a personification of the "People's Revolution," as both its spokesman and commander. Thus, a theocracy was born. (Nikki R. Keddie, 2003). The Iranian experience provides valuable data and certain insights into some key theoretical issues in sociology. It could contribute to the sociology of modernization, the sociology of revolutions, and the social study of culture and religion. Since the Iranian Revolution is only a single case and a case that seems to be historically specific, we may be prevented from over generalizing based on Iranian findings. However, the event raises certain issues and addresses certain questions that could shed some light on the shortcomings of existing theories. One such shortcoming is in the area of theories of modernization. Theoretical works on modernization were begun by pioneering sociologists and were later pursued by those in communications. As it had begun with the works of earlier theorists such as Daniel Lerner, modernization was viewed as a process that had great social-psychological consequences. What these attempted to do was trace the consequences for the material modernization of a society in terms of the internal (psychological) changes that take place within the inpidual. They further expanded these concerns in order to learn more about what facilitates or hinders the process of modernization of inpiduals. The Iranian case may suggest a need to look at the facilitators and impedances that are of a class and political nature. The breakdown of the inpidual's internal constraints against modernization, which the existing theorists tend to focus on, is not sufficient to understand both the modernization and counter modernization developments. As the Iranian case clearly shows, modernization is not viewed by the people who are subject to it as a value-free experience. It is understood as favoring certain groups more than others, and therefore becomes a political or even a class-domination process in the eyes of the people. It is this sort of cognitive mapping of modernization that is the key to understanding the cultural and religious revitalization movements that were active in Iran, and may potentially develop in many other Middle Eastern countries. (Christin Marschall, 2003). Similar arguments may be made about the theories of revolution. There exists a tendency for certain social theorists to try to reduce revolutionary events to causal models. Moreover, they tend to focus on monocausal explanations. The fact, as the Iranian Revolution seems to suggest, is that it might be futile to look for a single cause. Rather, one may need to favor a holistic approach. Again, it must be asserted that while none of the causal explanations can probably be rejected, even the monocausal ones, they do seem to only show a glimpse of revolutionary events. This theoretical issue could be raised about the potential sources of change generated by culture. If culture is viewed as a homogeneous medium, as in most cases it is, then it may closely resemble a static entity, a passive one that could not be the source of major social changes. What makes the Iranian culture and Shiiaism a potential ground for the generation of political forces is the dualism that is embedded in it. It is not just a series of justifications, historically formed by the interests of the ruling classes; nor is its content all anti-ruling class sentiments. It is both. The dynamism that could make culture and religion two important sources of change arises from this very fact of dualism. In the case of the Revolution, it was the antiruling class elements of Iranian culture and Shiia Islam that became the seedbed of radicalism that represented itself as revitalization movements. Such movements may well parallel other drives, such as those caused by material and group interests. For certain strata of people, the impetus could quite reasonably be cultural or religious movements, and nothing more. (Bernard Lewis, 2004). Surely, there were and still are many Iranians, acting and sounding as radical as any other "anti-imperialist" and "anti-ruling class" activists, who still sincerely believe that they revolted to vitalize their religion, that Shiia revitalization is indeed a revolutionary act, that the Revolution was definitely for Islam, and that they are ready to sacrifice their lives for that cause. For this category of people, ideologies, motives, supportive sentiments for revolutionary actions, and the ideals for which they have striven all have originated from their religion and culture. (Bernard Lewis, 2004). References: Bernard Lewis (2004). From Babel to Dragomans: Interpreting the Middle East; Oxford University Press Christin Marschall (2003). Iran's Persian Gulf Policy: From Khomeini to Khatami; Routledge Curzon Nikki R. Keddie (2003). Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution; Yale University Press
Monday, March 9, 2020
William R. Tracey, in The Human Resources Glossary defines Human Resources as: Ã¢â¬Å"The people that staff and operate an organization Ã¢â¬ ¦ as contrasted with the financial and material resources of an organization. The organizational function that deals with the people ...Ã¢â¬ (Heathfeild, M. Susan, 2004) The roll Human Resource Management at FedEx Trade Networks Transport Human Resources effect the total output and quality needed to reach the goals set by the organization. After speaking with my Human resource manager, John Young, he pointed out some of these Human Resource Management Functions: human resource planning, recruitment, and selection; human resource development; compensation and benefits; safety and health; employee and labor relations; and human resource research (Young, John 2004). Human resource planning is the process of reviewing the human resource requirements to ensure that the required numbers of employees, with the required skills, are available when needed. Recruitment is the process of attracting individuals to apply for jobs with the organization. Selection is the process though which the organization chooses, from a group of applicants, those best suited for the open positions and the company. Human resource development helps individuals, groups, and the entire organization become more effective. Compensation and Bene... Free Essays on The Roll Of HRM At FedEx Free Essays on The Roll Of HRM At FedEx William R. Tracey, in The Human Resources Glossary defines Human Resources as: Ã¢â¬Å"The people that staff and operate an organization Ã¢â¬ ¦ as contrasted with the financial and material resources of an organization. The organizational function that deals with the people ...Ã¢â¬ (Heathfeild, M. Susan, 2004) The roll Human Resource Management at FedEx Trade Networks Transport Human Resources effect the total output and quality needed to reach the goals set by the organization. After speaking with my Human resource manager, John Young, he pointed out some of these Human Resource Management Functions: human resource planning, recruitment, and selection; human resource development; compensation and benefits; safety and health; employee and labor relations; and human resource research (Young, John 2004). Human resource planning is the process of reviewing the human resource requirements to ensure that the required numbers of employees, with the required skills, are available when needed. Recruitment is the process of attracting individuals to apply for jobs with the organization. Selection is the process though which the organization chooses, from a group of applicants, those best suited for the open positions and the company. Human resource development helps individuals, groups, and the entire organization become more effective. Compensation and Bene...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Test the Expert Experiment Using the Sequence Generator - Case Study Example The use of Random Sequence Generator as a valid randomization method requires maintaining the same conditions like temperature and size when preparing and serving the two samples not to have an effect on the test subject (Sharpe, De Veaux &Velleman, 2014).Independence of Trials Each trial of the experiment must be independent and an outcome of one trial should have no effect on the conclusion of the following trial. This aspect will bring validity to the statistical analysis of the experiment. Measures to influence the legitimacy of the test include running multiple tests with the practice subject to ascertain any faults in the process. The faults may cause poor results or incapacity of the test subject through fatigue or any other way. Rehearsal The rehearsal`s main purpose is to verify, improve or correct the experiment, and provide insight into the research in producing reliable results. The practice subject did not consume any of the samples, and no recommendations were needed to increase the potential of the experiment. The procedures and samples of the experiment were adequate to initiate the test. The critical value of the test statistic is -1.6499, the p-value is 0.005 at an alpha value of 0.05. The experiment has provided sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis as it is observed that H0: Ãâ¬ < 0.5 (not an expert) indicating that the subject is statistically significantly considered an expert. Lavender is an expert in differentiating Diet Coke from Coke.